A philosophical controversy In this article, the positions of Kant and Hume will be presented regarding the relationship between reason and morality. Through their respective works, A Treatise of human natureand Grounding for the metaphysics of moralsthey both advocate a position on this issue.
The Scottish philosopher David Hume wrote: I never catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe any thing but the perception"  According to Hume then there is nothing that is constantly stable which we could identify as the self, only a flow of differing experiences.
Our view that there is something substantive which binds all of these experiences together is for Hume merely imaginary. The self is a fiction that is attributed to the entire flow of experiences. I may venture to affirm of the rest of mankind, that they are nothing but a bundle or collection of different perceptions, which succeed each other with an inconceivable rapidity, and are in a perpetual flux and movement.
Parfit concludes that "Buddha would have agreed.
Is the truth depressing? Some may find it so. But I find it liberating, and consoling. When I believed that my existence was such a further fact, I seemed imprisoned in myself. My life seemed like a glass tunnel, through which I was moving faster every year, and at the end of which there was darkness.
When I changed my view, the walls of my glass tunnel disappeared. I now live in the open air. There is still a difference between my lives and the lives of other people. But the difference is less.
Other people are closer.
I am less concerned about the rest of my own life, and more concerned about the lives of others. Idealism[ edit ] Idealism is the group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Some Buddhist philosophical views have been interpreted as having Idealistic tendencies, mainly the cittamatra mind-only philosophy of Yogacara Buddhism  as outlined in the works of Vasubandhu and Xuanzang. What is imagined by it does not exist. Therefore everything is representation-only. According to Benjamin A.Conclusion on the compared philosophies of Kant and Hume So, for Hume, reason is not involved in morality.
By cons, according to Kant, the man is a rational being who has an autonomous will and reason itself determines a moral law. Hume, on the other hand, managed to influence great thinkers such as Emmanuel Kant and Arthur Schopenhauer, with utilitarian theories on politics, and with treatises on religion and questions such as free will/determinism.
The very first free will "problem" was whether freedom was compatible with intervention and foreknowledge of the gods. Before there was anything called philosophy, religious accounts of man's fate explored the degree of human freedom permitted by superhuman gods.
The Scottish philosopher David Hume wrote: This has been compared to the Idealist philosophies of Bishop Berkeley and Immanuel Kant. Kant's categories have also been compared G. Morrison has also written on the "ironic affinities" between Nietzsche and Pali Buddhism through close textual comparison, such as that between Nietzsche's.
|The History of the Free Will Problem||Most of the ancient thinkers on the problem were trying to show that we humans have control over our decisions, that our actions "depend on us"and that they are not pre-determined by fate, by arbitrary gods, by logical necessity, or by a natural causal determinism.|
|Introduction||Kant versus Hume on the Necessary Connection Stuart Greenstreet finds that free will and determinism really do go together.|
In the lectures of and Berkeley was passed over by Hegel; in both courses Hume follows directly after the Scottish and French philosophers, and thus comes immediately before Kant; in the course of the French philosophy precedes the Scottish also.
Nov 19, · David Hume and Immanuel Kant were two of the great thinkers that lived in the s, whose definitions of the nature of science particularly psychology would leave a lasting impact. David Hume was born in in Scotland and attended the University of Edinburg, leaving after three years to pursue philosophy.2/5(5).