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Exploration of the most viewed ASMR media on Youtube uncovers what may be discrete categories of common triggers. Often this involves grooming e. The tone of these types of ASMR media is usually one of having close attention paid to you, the viewer, with videos shot in a point of view manner.
Other videos include acts which require a similar amount of focus, but directed towards objects, rather than the viewer e. ASMR videos also typically appear to include an emphasis on the use of sound to trigger the static sensation of ASMR, which include the subjects of these videos cycling through a variety of household items which make various noises when tapped upon or used e.
The reported automatic, consistent response to audio-visual stimuli which is felt in tactile sensory modalities alongside a Participants section of a research paper of calm does appear to resemble synaesthesia in these aspects, though the tactile concurrents secondary sensations in the unstimulated modality; Cytowic, found in ASMR appear to be more tangible than those experienced in synaesthesia ie.
Even with this being the case, the positive emotional response of calm said to be triggered by ASMR media consumption could potentially be considered a form of sound-emotion synaesthesia.
The aim of the current study was to describe the sensations associated with ASMR, explore the ways in which it is typically induced in capable individuals, and to provide further thoughts on where this sensation may fit into current knowledge on atypical perceptual experiences.
This research also aims to explore the extent to which engagement with ASMR may ease symptoms of depression and chronic pain. As ASMR has yet to be defined within scientific literature, this study will utilise survey data and qualitative descriptive contributions from participants to explore the characteristics of ASMR, and to provide a basis for later experimental investigation.
These participants presented themselves as volunteers via online advertisement on specialised ASMR interest groups on Facebook and Reddit.
Volunteers were located worldwide, with particular participation from the United States of America and Western Europe. Method An online questionnaire www. Ethical approval was granted by the Department of Psychology of Swansea University, and continuation from the initial screen of this questionnaire, which contained a brief summary of the research topic and all necessary ethical information, served as informed consent.
The structure of this questionnaire is described below, and a version of the text of the questionnaire is included as Appendix S1: Section 1—demographics Demographic information, including whether or not individuals suffered from any chronic illness or took medications, was gathered at the beginning of the survey.
As several online sources indicate the existence of a subset of ASMR media users who engage in ASMR to manage symptoms of depression, stress, or pain, this data would be used to explore efficacy of ASMR in easing symptoms of these conditions.
No leading elaboration was given with regard to this sensation, as all participants had been recruited via ASMR social network groups, and would therefore be aware of how this aspect of the phenomenon is typically described. This was an attempt to limit imposing researcher assumptions about ASMR.
In this section, participants were also given a definition of synaesthesia, alongside some examples of synaesthetic associations. Participants were asked to report if they suspected they may experience any type of synaesthesia.
Those who responded in a positive or unsure manner were asked to specify which type of synaesthesia they thought they may have, and were followed up approximately four weeks later via e-mail to be assessed for consistency.
Section 2—viewing habits This section included questions pertaining to how often participants engaged in ASMR media sessions, how many videos they consumed in a single session, and at what time of day they typically viewed ASMR media.
Questions regarding the optimal conditions to experience ASMR were also included. Section 3—triggers Participants were asked to report whether or not they experienced any of the triggers in a list of 9 given stimuli: Crisp sounds, whispering, personal attention, vacuum noise, aeroplane noise, laughing, smiling, watching repetitive tasks, and slow movements.
Of these suggestions, five possible triggers were inspired by the typical content of ASMR videos e.
These unlikely triggers are commonly present in ASMR videos, but are not commonly identified in titles or online discussions, so were considered to be unlikely to produce tingles in many participants. This section included a comment box in which participants could specify what, if anything, abolished the tingling sensations.
Preference of receiving auditory triggers in one ear over another was also probed. Section 4—location In order to more clearly define the location and time course of the tingling sensation associated with ASMR, participants were asked to report where on their body they typically felt tingles originate, and whether or not the sensation always originated in that area.
Participants were also asked whether or not the tingling evolved or spread with intensity, and if so, which other body areas the tingling sensation spread to.
We selected only the eight questions relating to the passive experience of flow. These scores were initially subjected to factor analysis to confirm that only a single factor had been captured in the reduced questionnaire.
Section 7—Effect on mood and chronic pain Using an interactive sliding scale ranging from 0 toparticipants were asked to rate their experience of mood during a typical day, directly before, during, one hour after and 3 h after a successful ASMR media viewing session.
These ratings were given at the same time, i. However, due to certain sections being inapplicable to some participants, some sections included data from a subset of the entire sample.
In these cases, N is reported alongside the results. A copy of the data from this experiment are included as Data S1. Many participants described additional details of seeking the effects of ASMR where other interventions, medical or otherwise, had been unable to assist.
This is perhaps best illustrated by a correspondence from one participant whose anxiety and stress was causing significant issues in his daily functioning. After noticing during a hairdressing appointment that he felt at ease, he sought out ways to replicate this feeling daily in order to manage his symptoms, and in the process discovered ASMR media.
In his own words: Triggers less commonly associated with ASMR media smiling, vacuum cleaner noise, aeroplane noise, and laughing were included for comparison.
These values are illustrated in Table 2.The methods section describes actions to be taken to investigate a research problem and the rationale for the application of specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information applied to understanding the problem, thereby, allowing the reader to critically evaluate a study’s overall validity and reliability.
SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 3 Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style Before getting started you will notice some things about this paper. A major part of any writing assignment consists of re-writing. Write accurately.
Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. It is the part of the proposal or research paper that describes the methods used to collect the data.
Here is a participants section for a proposal. Writing a Method Section . Results. We ran five experiments, with 36– participants in each. In experiment 1, participants reported bodily sensations associated with six “basic” and seven nonbasic (“complex”) emotions, as well as a neutral state, all described by the corresponding emotion words.
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