The evolution of automobiles in united states in the 21st century into electric cars

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The evolution of automobiles in united states in the 21st century into electric cars

Electric cars have several benefits over conventional internal combustion engine automobiles, including a significant reduction of local air pollutionas they do not directly emit pollutants such as particulates sootvolatile organic compoundshydrocarbonscarbon monoxideozoneleadand various oxides of nitrogen.

For electricity from the grid, the emissions vary significantly depending on your region, the availability of renewable sources and the efficiency of the fossil fuel-based generation used.

The sourcing of fossil fuels oil well to tank causes further damage and use of resources during the extraction and refinement processes,including high amounts of electricity. This translates into saving million kilograms of CO2 emissions by driving an electric car in comparison to travelling with a gasoline-powered car.

Electric motors have flat torque curve down to zero speed. For simplicity and reliability, many electric cars use fixed-ratio gearboxes and have no clutch.

The Standard Oil Monopoly

Many electric cars have motors that have high acceleration, relative to comparable cars, however, Neighborhood Electric Vehicles may have a low acceleration due to their relatively weak motors. This is largely due to the relatively constant torque of an electric motor, which often increase the acceleration relative to a similar motor power internal combustion engine.

Having motors connected directly to each wheel allows the wheels to be used both for propulsion and as braking systems, thereby increasing traction.

Some DC-motor -equipped drag racer EVs have simple two-speed manual transmissions to improve top speed. Electric car energy efficiency Internal combustion engines have thermodynamic limits on efficiency, expressed as fraction of energy used to propel the vehicle compared to energy produced by burning fuel.

The evolution of automobiles in united states in the 21st century into electric cars

Electric cars can not idle. Regenerative brakingwhich is most common in electric vehicles, can recover as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking. Tesla Motors indicates that the vehicle efficiency including charging inefficiencies of their lithium-ion battery powered vehicle is To avoid using part of the battery's energy for heating and thus reducing the range, some models allow the cabin to be heated while the car is plugged in.

Cabin cooling can be augmented with solar poweror by automatically allowing outside air to flow through the car when parked. Two models of the Toyota Prius include this feature as an option. This document is divided in three parts dealing with specific issues: On-board electrical energy storage, i.

Risk of fire[ edit ] Main article: In this case the vehicle was being driven at high speed through a roundabout and crashed through a wall and into a tree. The fire broke out several minutes after the driver exited the vehicle.

Economic history of the United States - Wikipedia

The Volt's high-voltage system is designed to shut down automatically in the event of an airbag deployment, and to detect a loss of communication from an airbag control module. The guide also describes methods of disabling the high voltage system and identifies cut zone information.

Electric vehicle warning sounds At low speeds, electric cars produced less roadway noise than vehicles propelled by internal combustion engines.

Blind or visually impaired people consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets, hence electric cars and hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard. At higher speeds, the sound created by tire friction and the air displaced by the vehicle start to make sufficient audible noise.

Congressand the European Parliament passed legislation to regulate the minimum level of sound for hybrids and plug-in electric vehicles when operating in electric mode, so that blind people and other pedestrians and cyclists can hear them coming and detect from which direction they are approaching.

The Tesla Model S is one of the few electric cars without warning sounds; Tesla Motors will wait until regulations are enacted. Controls[ edit ] As of [update]most Electric cars have similar driving controls to that of a car with a conventional automatic transmission.

Even though the motor may be permanently connected to the wheels through a fixed-ratio gear and no parking pawl may be present the modes "P" and "N" are often still provided on the selector.

Big Oil - An Industry Founded on Treachery and Deceit

In this case the motor is disabled in "N" and an electrically actuated hand brake provides the "P" mode. In some cars the motor will spin slowly to provide a small amount of creep in "D", similar to a traditional automatic. An EV would coast under these conditions, if it wasn't for regenerative braking which instead provides a more familiar response and recharges the battery to an extent.

These features also reduce the use of the conventional brakes, significantly reducing wear and tear and maintenance costs as well as improving vehicle range. Electric vehicle battery Lithium-based batteries are often chosen for their high power and energy density, although may wear out over a long period of time.

There are also other battery types, such as Nickel metal hydride NiMH batteries which have a poorer power to weight ratio than lithium ion, but are cheaper.

Several other battery chemistries are in development such as zinc-air battery which could be much lighter."The story of oil is the story of the modern world. And this is the story of those who helped shape that world, and how the oil-igarchy they created is on the verge of monopolizing life itself.".

The economic history of the United States is about characteristics of and important developments in the U.S. economy from colonial times to the present. The emphasis is on economic performance and how it was affected by new technologies, especially those that improved productivity, which is the main cause of economic covered are the change of size in economic sectors and the.

Born 21 Jun Yang Liwei is a Chinese astronaut and administrator who was China’s first astronaut in his nation’s first manned spacecraft, Shenzhou was launched on the morning of 15 Oct , from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in the Gobi desert in northwest China's Gansu Province.

Coordinates. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

At million square miles ( million km 2), the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area and slightly smaller than the entire. Humanity is at a crossroads.

United States - Wikipedia

The world of is a world of contrasts and paradoxes. On the one hand, science and technology have continued to advance in response to . Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle (EV). The term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" generally refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity.

Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States, and as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe, are.

United States - Wikipedia